Paddy Cultivation Information: Completely different Strategies of Rice Cultivation in India

Paddy cultivation is a really water intensive and laborious job. Paddy crop could be cultivated in numerous strategies with totally different stage of water and labour requirement. If you wish to do rice cultivation then right here is the entire information on scientifically rising rice in India.

Rice is the staple meals of individuals from Southern and japanese components of India. It’s therefore extensively cultivated in India and different components of Asia resembling China, Japan, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand, and so on. Globally, China is the main producer of rice with India being the subsequent. As per statistics, West Bengal is the main rice producer in India adopted by Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra, Punjab, Orissa, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Assam and Haryana. Cultivating rice is certainly laborious and it wants a number of water. Subsequently, rice cultivation is practiced in these locations whereby the labor price is much less and rainfall is excessive.

Info on Paddy Crop

Rice is the seed of a grass selection referred to as Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. Paddy plant has a fibrous root with the plant rising upto 6 ft tall. It has a spherical jointed stem with leaves being lengthy and pointed. The edible seeds that are bought commercially as ‘rice’ develop on the highest within the type of separate stalks. Technically that is referred to as paddy because the seeds are coated with a brown coloured husk. The paddy is then harvested and dehusked ensuing within the commercially necessary rice. Typically individuals confuse rice and paddy. Rice fields are additionally referred to as as paddy fields.

Local weather for Paddy Cultivation

Rice is a tropical local weather crop that may develop from sea stage to an altitude of 3000 meters. Paddy cultivation may also be accomplished in temperate and sub-tropical local weather underneath humid circumstances. A excessive temperature, humidity and adequate rainfall with irrigation services are the first necessities of paddy cultivation. It additionally wants shiny sunshine with temperature ranging between 20 and 40⁰C. It could tolerate temperature upto 42⁰C.

Season for Rice Crop

Since rice can develop in a wide range of local weather and altitude it’s cultivated in numerous seasons in numerous components of the nation. In areas of excessive rainfall and low winter temperature (northern and western components) rice crop is grown as soon as a year- throughout Could to November. Two or three crops are grown within the southern and japanese states. India has three rice farming seasons- summer season, autumn and winter. Nonetheless, the chief rice rising season is ‘kharif’ season additionally referred to as ‘winter rice’. The sowing time is June-July and is harvested throughout November- December months. 84% of the nation’s rice provide is grown within the kharif crop.

Rice cultivated throughout rabi season can be referred to as as ‘summer season rice’. It’s sown within the months of November to February and harvested throughout March to June. 9% of complete rice crop is grown on this season. Early maturing varieties are usually grown throughout this time.

The pre-kharif or ‘autumn rice’ is sown throughout Could to August. The sowing time additionally is dependent upon the rainfall and climate situation. Therefore the timing could differ barely from place to position. Usually, it’s harvested throughout September- October months. 7% of the full rice crop in India grows on this season and quick period varieties which mature inside 90-110 days are cultivated.

Soil for Rice Cultivation

Nearly each sort of soil can be utilized for rice cultivation offered the area has a excessive stage of humidity, adequate rainfall with irrigational services, and a excessive temperature. The foremost kinds of soils for rice cultivation are black soil, purple soil (loamy and yellow), laterite soil, purple sandy, terai, hill and medium to shallow black soil. It may be even cultivated on silts and gravels. If the cultivating soil has wealthy natural matter and if it powders simply on drying or kinds a puddle when moist then it’s thought of to be very best.

pH Degree for Rice Farming

Rice could be cultivated in each acidic in addition to alkaline soil.

Water

Bund farming system is adopted in case of rice cultivation whereby the fields are flooded repeatedly upto 7-10 days earlier than harvesting. To supply a kilogram of rice the crop on a median wants about 1500 liters of water. In different phrases, rice wants an enormous quantity of water for cultivation. This steady flooding follow is adopted to make sure weed management and adequate water provide. Flooded soil additionally ensures:

  • Higher nutrient availability
  • Moisture stress elimination
  • Micro-climate for favorable crop manufacturing

Within the wake of water shortage threatening the world, environment friendly practices are being adopted to optimize the yield. A few of the practices are as listed under:

Subject Channels

Separate area channels are constructed to permit water to be delivered to particular person seed beds. Thus the principle area just isn’t watered until it’s time to truly plant in the principle area. It is very important management the water flowing to the sphere or draining away from the sphere. That is obligatory in order that the vitamins utilized are usually not misplaced.

Filling the Cracks in Soil

When there are deep cracks current within the soil an enormous quantity of water could be misplaced on account of drainage of water by means of these cracks that run under the basis zone. In such circumstances, the cracks have to be stuffed earlier than soaking. One of many methods is to do a shallow tillage earlier than soaking the land. In case of clayey soils the land is puddled because it leads to a tough pan. Nonetheless, for closely clayey soils puddling just isn’t obligatory.

Leveling the Subject

A area that’s uneven in stage consumes practically 10% further water than what is important for progress. The sphere is mostly plowed twice earlier than leveling. The second plowing is finished with water within the area in order to outline the excessive and low areas.

Bund Development

Bunds type a boundary and therefore restrict water loss. They have to be compact and excessive sufficient to keep away from overflowing of water in case of rains. Rat holes and cracks have to be plastered.

Crop Rotation with Rice Crop

Legumes are probably the most generally used crops used for crop rotation with rice. That is particularly in case of locations with decrease water provide. Rice in such locations is cultivated solely annually and the remainder of the yr the land is fallow. Therefore planting legumes in such interval would optimize land use and in addition assist enhance fertility of soil.

Planting Materials

Rice is propagated from paddy seeds. Subsequently, seed choice performs a important position within the yield. Some factors that have to be famous for choosing very best quality seeds are:

  • Seeds have to be fully-developed and mature
  • Clear paddy seeds
  • No indicators of growing old
  • Excessive capability of germination

Remedy of Seeds

The seeds have to be soaked in salt resolution for 10 minutes. Those that float have to be discarded whereas those that sink are mature seeds that have to be used for planting. Instantly wash the seeds after eradicating from the answer. Farmers are suggested to soak the seeds in a superb fungicide resolution like carbendazim for twenty-four hours. This ensures the seed safety from fungal ailments. If the world of cultivation is prevalent in bacterial ailments like leaf blight, then the seeds have to be soaked in Streptocycline resolution for 12 hours. After this, they have to dried completely underneath shade after which used for sowing. Usually seeds are sprouted earlier than sowing or then grown in nurseries earlier than transplanting.

Land Preparation for Paddy Cultivation

Rice is cultivated in numerous strategies relying on the water availability and climate. In areas the place the rainfall is plentiful clubbed with plentiful water provide, moist system of cultivation is adopted. Then again, in areas the place irrigation services are unavailable and water is scarce, dry cultivation system is adopted.

Moist Cultivation System

The land is completely ploughed and flooded with water upto 5cm in depth. In case of clayey or loamy soil the depth have to be 10 cm. Put up puddling the land is levelled in order to make sure uniform water distribution.

Dry Cultivation System

On this rice cultivation course of the soil will need to have a superb tilth therefore it have to be ploughed completely. As well as, farm yard manure have to be distributed on the sphere uniformly at the very least 4 weeks earlier than sowing. The seeds are then sown with 30 cm spacing between the crops.

Rice Cultivation Technique

Most farmers follow nursery mattress methodology. Nursery beds are made occupying about 1/twentieth of the full area space. The paddy seeds are sown within the mattress. They’re prepared inside 25 days of sowing in low land areas whereas in increased altitudes they take about 55 days to change into prepared for transplantation. There are 4 totally different practices of cultivation of rice, viz. transplantation methodology, drilling methodology, broadcast methodology and Japanese methodology.

  • Transplantation is probably the most generally used methodology whereby seeds are first sown in nursery and the seedlings are transplanted to the principle area as soon as they present 3-4 leaves. Though that is the perfect yielding methodology, it requires heavy labor.
  • Drilling methodology is unique to India. On this methodology, one individual ploughs a gap within the land and the opposite individual sows the seed. Ox is probably the most generally used ‘individual’ to plough the land.
  • Broadcast methodology typically entails scattering of the seeds manually over a big space or in the complete area. Labor concerned may be very much less and so is the precision. This methodology produces very much less yield as in comparison with others.
  • Japanese methodology has been adopted for the excessive yielding number of rice and people who want a excessive quantity of fertilizers. Seeds are sown in nursery beds after which transplanted to the principle area. It has proven super success for the excessive yielding varieties.

One other newly discovered method is SRI methodology of rice cultivation. This can be a excessive yielding methodology with much less water however this methodology is extra laborious.

Ailments and Plant Safety in Rice Farming

Blast

Attributable to

Fungii

Signs

  • Spindle-shaped spots on leaves with gray facilities.
  • Nodes rot turning black and thus breaks.
  • Neck of the panicle rot
  • Grains are chaffy

This illness can have an effect on the crop in any respect the rising stages- nursery, tillering and flowering.

Administration

  • Soak the seeds in carbendazim for 12 hours earlier than sowing.
  • Keep away from a heavy dose of nitrogen fertilizer.
  • Throughout transplantation, the roots have to be dipped in carbendazim resolution instantly upon uprooting.
  • Use resistant varieties.

Brown Spot

Causative Agent

Fungii

Signs

  • Darkish brown, oval spots on stems, leaves and plumes.
  • Happens in poor and poor soils.
  • Can happen in nursery or in area.

Administration

  • Because it happens in poor soils, the deficiency have to be corrected by including vitamins and fertilizers.
  • Resistant varieties have to be cultivated in poor soils.
  • Treating the seeds with Agrosan can be efficient in controlling the illness.

Bacterial Blight

Causative Agent

Micro organism

Signs

  • Yellow to white lesions alongside the margin steadily spreading round the entire leaf.
  • Spreads quick in case of winds, incessant rain and heat temperature.
  • An infection happens throughout transplantation.

Administration

  • Keep away from nitrogen fertilizers in extra.
  • Soak the seeds in Streptocycline for 12 hours earlier than planting.
  • Affected crops are sprayed with Agrimycin 100.

Udbatta Illness

Causative Agent

Fungii

Signs

  • Fungus assaults panicles and spikelets stick collectively. Therefore no grains are fashioned.
  • Contaminated crops are shorter and therefore go unnoticed.

Administration

  • Use illness free seeds for paddy cultivation
  • Keep away from heavy nitrogen doses
  • Deal with the seeds with carbendazim earlier than planting. The affected seeds may also be sprayed with it throughout the initiation of panicle.

Sheath Blight

Causative Agent

Fungii

Signs

  • Impacts the sheath of the leaves.
  • The affected components are blighted.

Administration

  • Being soil-borne illness, planting intently have to be prevented.
  • Keep away from making use of heavy nitrogen fertilizers.
  • Spray the affected crop with carbendazim.

Harvesting Rice

One of many important components in rice cultivation is in-time rice harvesting in any other case the grains would shed. Irrigation of the sphere is totally stopped a few week earlier than harvesting. This dehydration course of helps in grain ripening. It additionally hastens maturity. In case of early and medium maturing varieties, harvesting ought to be carried out 25- 30 days after flowering.  They’re typically harvested when the moisture content material is about 25%. Put up harvesting, drying is carried out steadily underneath shade.

Conclusion

If accomplished scientifically after which Paddy cultivation is a worthwhile agriculture enterprise. To attenuate farm labour mechanized strategies ought to be adopted from planting to harvesting rice crop. Natural farming of paddy can be getting fashionable and natural rice have potential to fetch extra market value.

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