The kingdom of plants

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There’s a myriad of plants that it is evident that them with various stems, leaves and even fruits. Why do we have this? It would be boring to have all plants alike? Who would want to eat only apples for the rest of their lives! Start! We will then discuss the various plant kingdom. The plant kingdom comprises the following species: red, brown and green algae, liverwort ferns algal species like funaria, ferns and seeds, as well as plants, with or without flowers and possess the following traits:


Multicellular organisms, with walls that contain numerous vacuoles and eukaryotic cells.

They are a source of photosynthesis pigment in chloroplasts. The principal mode of nutrition is photosynthesis.

They are mostly immobile and are able to live on a stable substrate.

Reproduction is sexually asexual (primitive) also known as sexual. Organs of reproduction that are multicellular, develops an embryo that is multicellular when it is formed from a zygote. algae are not able to develop into embryos.

The life cycle is being a mixture of 2 generations: gametophyte (haploid) and the sporophyte (diploid) This phenomenon is known as generational alternation.

Thallophyta (algae)

These are basic, non-vascular autotrophic plants with the haploid sex organs, but no embryogenesis They also develop in particular habitats, like:

Cryophytes are plants that develop on ice or snow.

Thermophytes: They thrive in hot water.

Epiphytes are plants that are aerobic parasitic These are the algae that thrive upon other plant species (algae or angiosperms,). Some examples include OedogoniumCladophora along with Vaucheria.

Endophytes: Blue-green algae are found in endophytes of other plants. For instance, Anabaena grows inside Azolla fern.

The Parasites Cephaleuros Viescens parasite thrives within tea leaves.

Bryophyta (algae plants) (Bryon = alga, phyton = plant):

They’re a family of mostly of the simplest plants. We also call as amphibians (amphibians in the plant kingdom) and are commonly found in areas that are shaded and moist However, some species thrive in various areas like extremely dry or in water regions, and reproduce sexually.

Anthridium is the masculine organ for sexual pleasure, while archonium is the female sexual organ.


Pteridophyta vascular Symbionts (Phyton means plant; Pteron means feather):

It is the term used to describe all plants that have feathers like the fronds and ferns, but are not adorned with flowers or seeds. They tend to be terrestrial and prefer shaded habitats and also have spores.

Vascular symbionts typically have one distinct cell with three faces that are cut off at the apex.Let’s take a look at the various categories that comprise this category:


* Psilopsida


They are among the oldest vascular plants, the majority of them (except the exception of Psilotum as well as Tmesipteris) can be considered fossils.

The plant’s body is less distinct and there are no roots In its place, you’ll discover a doubly branched (short the lateral stem, also known as a rhizome).


* Lycopsida

The body of the plant can be divided in root leaves, and stem. The leaves are generally tiny, i.e. microphyllous, and have no branched (veined) vessels. The sporangia form in an the axis (the location of where the stem of the leaf with branches).


* Sphenopsida

Kingdom of plants with brown and green algae red liver ferns and algae that resemble funaria the ferns seeds plants flowers leaves

It is split into internodes and nodes. Leaves are spindle-shaped at the nodes.


* Pteropsida

The plant body is separated into the root, leaves, and the stem. leaves are massive and feather-like in the structure.



Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants are the most common plant species that are vascular in our time. They are the primary reason to transform the earth’s green vegetation by their vibrant hues and vibrant scent. The word “angiosperm” is a reference to “enclosed seeds” This is due to the fact that the ovules, or seeds that could be able to germinate are contained inside the hollow ovary.


Angiosperms can be divided into two major types: Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons.



* Dicotyledons exhibit distinct characteristics like:


# There are taproots in those who belong to this category.


# The vessels that carry the HTML0 are visible in the leaf in an oblique form.


# These flowers have either four or five-parted. They have either four or five petals in different blooms, spindle-shaped or otherwise.


# The vascular bundles are organized in an ring. They have a numbers are 2-6. They open up with the cambium (corky tissue).



# Dicotyledonous Seeds are composed of two cotyledons as the name implies.


* Monocotyledons exhibit certain distinctive traits:


# The existence of a variety of ancestors in these members.


# They are easy to read and the vessels for carrying appear in parallel.


# These flowers have a triangular in shapeand have three petals in each flower, as in every flower.


# The bundles of vascular blood are found in the tissues beneath and are numerous in numbers, and closed with no cambium.



# Monocotyledonous seed which means that they have one cotyledon, as the name suggests like bamboo, cereals palms, sugar cane as well as bananas, lilies, bananas and orchids.


* Gymnosperms:


They’re mostly evergreens, perennials and woody plants.


They are found as tall, woody trees or even climb the mountains (such Gnetales). Gnetales) They are not annuals or herbs.

The exterior features of the plant are: The body is sporophyte like and is distinct to the root, stem and leaves.

The plant has a developed root system that is well-developed. In certain instances, the roots are symbiotically linked with algae (eg coralloids in Salix roots) as well as fungi (eg Mycorrhizal on pine root).

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